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Salinity Gradient

Change in the salinity between bodies of water


Emission control device that adds alkaline reagents to react and neutralize acidic gases.

Secondary market

See PV Secondary Market

Secondary module market

Market for trading pre-owned solar panels


These are objects that impair the solar irradiance on a solar panel, therefore reducing the yield of a solar plant.


Semiconductor material made from silica, which is purified for photovoltaic applications.

Single Crystal Silicon (Czochralski)

Extremely pure form of crystalline silicon. This is produced from the Czochralski method in which a single crystal is dipped into a pool of molten silicon under high vacuum condition. Then a solidifying single crystal boule rod of silicon is withdrawn, which is sawed into thin wafers and further fabricated into single-crystal photovoltaic cells


Air pollution that contains oxidants

Solar Cell

Electrical cell that changes radiant energy into electrical energy

Solar Dish

Device that receives radiation that has been collected by motorized trackers. The radiation is focused at a focal point on the dish

Solar electricity

Electricity that has been generated by a PV plant

Solar Energy

Radiant energy of the sun

Solar industry

Economic sector that deals with photovoltaics

Solar market

See Photovoltaic Market

Solar park / Solar Farm

These are ground mounted PV systems that have been constructed on a green field (open space). Solar parks generally cover 3 hectares.

Solar Ponds

Ponds of stratified water that collect and retain heat

Solar power

See Solar Energy

Solar Power Tower

Method of producing electrical energy from solar rays. A large number of solar rays are focused on a single source, which is typically on an elevated tower for higher temperatures.

Solar system

See Photovoltaic System

Solar Thermal Collector

Device that receives solar radiation and converts it into thermal energy. The heat collected may be used right away or stored

Solar thermal energy

Solar irradiance is converted to thermal energy.


Acronym for Special Purpose Vehicle; See Operating Company


Water that is in vapor form.

Stoker Boiler

Boiler in which fuel is burned on a grate with the fuel supplied and ash removed continuously.

Stranded Investment

Financial impairment; This is when the price of a plant output falls to a level where the owner can no longer earn a sufficient return on investment


State assistance paid to sectors or businesses. In the solar industry, it usually means feed-in-tariffs.

Support structure (WT)

Part of a Wind Turbine that is made up of the foundation and tower


Monitoring and verification of products, procedures and services in order to ensure that requirements are met

Survival wind speed

Maximum wind speed that a construction can withstand


The use of regenerative systems such as power generations

Swept area

Projected area perpendicular to the wind direction that a rotor will describe in one full rotation


Device that allows for the stop and flow of electricity